“Treatment resistance” is a definition that does not belong to the classification system, because it depends on the availability of suitable therapies at a given point in history. However, it has regulatory implications, and it may be useful for clinical practice. Treatment resistance is quite well defined in the field of depression, but not so much in the field of bipolar disorder: hence, concepts such as “treatment resistent mania”, “treatment resistent bipolar depression” and “treatment resistent bipolar disorder” await standardized definitions that may guide clinical practice. This presentation will review this concepts and provide hints for optimal treatment of all those clinical scenarios, with a sight to the future.

Chairperson: Yu Wei Lee, Singapore

Provision of the virtual auditorium venue for this session is made possible by a kind donation from Otsuka Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd to the Pharmacological Society (Singapore).

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